# Engineering Statistics Final Exam Review EST 201

Shown below are exercises for review on Stat EST 201. Similar type of problems will be coming out of our coming final exam. All are required to have their own calculator. No borrowing of calculators is allowed.

REVIEW FINAL EXAM ENGINEERING EST 201
Shown below are exercises for review on Stat 201. Similar type of problems will be coming out of our coming final exam. All are required to have their own calculator. No borrowing of calculators is allowed.
1. Below are two samples independent data in one of the experiments.
Sample A Sample B
3 6
4 4
7 8
6 4
4 3
Assume the conditions between the two groups are identical in every respect except Sample A used method A and Sample B used the method B during experiments. Compute the t-value assuming the two samples have
a) equal variance or homoscedastic
b) unequal variance or heterscedastic
2. Records show that once the Engineering students are already in the fourth year stage, 90 % will successfully complete the course. If in a year, 14 students commenced the course, calculate the probability that
a) All 14 successfully completed the course
b) Only 1 student fails to complete the course
c) At least 2 students fail to complete the course
3. From a box containing 4 red balls, 6 white balls, and 8 blue balls, one ball is drawn at random. Determine the probability that the ball drawn is
a) red
b) Not red
c) White
d) Red or white

4. The probability that a football team playing at hometown will win a match is ¾. Calculate the probability that in their next 7 matches the team will win 3 games.
5. If the probability that a missile will hit the campus is 3/5, find the probability of
a) exactly 4 hits out of 6 tries b) Exactly 8 hits out of 12 tries

6. The probability of a student got a failing grade on a particular course due to A) absences is 1/15 B) cheating during quizzes is 1/30 and C) no final exam is 1/50. Determine the probabilities that in a particular course a student failed due to;
a) absences and cheating
b) Cheating or no final exam
c) Will not fail because of both absences and no final exam

7. A committee of 3 boys and 4 girls is to be selected from 6 boys and 6 girls. How many possible committees are there?
8. Compute the sample standard deviation of the following data:
8 7 9 10 14 12

9. Compute the standard deviation of the following grouped data;

Class frequency, f
1-5 2
6-10 5
11-15 2
16-20 1
a) using deviation formula b) computational formula
10. Three groups of university students consisting of 15, 20, and 10 individuals, reported mean heights of 1.5, 1.4, and 1.8 meters respectively. Find the mean height of all students.
11. A teacher wants to test if calculator helps students reduce error. She has 10 student participants and records the error with and without calculator. Just compute the t-test value.
6 6 0
9 6 3
9 7 2
10 6 4
9 7 2
6 5 1
7 5 2
5 4 1
7 4 3
5 6 -1

12. Below were the recorded football scores of the 3 exhibition games. Using ANOVA if the degree of freedoms between groups is 2 and within groups is 6, determine the F-test value.
A B C
3 1 2
2 4 1
1 2 3

# Blatant Display of Abuse of Power

By Vic Odarve

Sometimes we have to pay an attention to tiresome people that hit world headlines. Authoritarian rule continues sacking political rivals who are threat to his government; political warlords and members of their dynasty break the rules of legal regulations and ordinances; and wealthy business moguls and their family members seem to be worshipped like God. These pictures and many incidents are examples of blatant oppression of the poor by the powerful.

President Putin of Russia

Recently, Russian President Putin has acted an iron hand to its political opponent Alexei Navalny. In the final judgment, Alexie was sentenced to five-year prisons on fabricated charges with stealing a small amount of money on the sale of timber. This man is really a thorn to Putin; responsible in exposing high level of corruption in the country; organizers of anti-Putin demonstrations following the disputed parliamentary and presidential elections; and charismatic

Uncle of Kim Jong North Korea on trial

blogger and activist-thus plenty of followers. As such he could not run for public office; thus Putin has successfully removed Navalny from formal politics.

While in North Korea, Dictator Kim Jong II brutally killed his powerful uncle, who had been considered as second in command, for allegedly attempting to overthrow the state; his uncle was

Uncle Executed-Eaten by Dogs

stripped naked, thrown into a cage, and eaten alive by a pack of ravenous dogs. These are blatant displays of abuse of power.

Not only the authoritarian rulers demonstrate their abusive powers, Philippine political warlords and dynasty, sometimes close their eyes to the established laws and regulations. Last Nov. 30, 2013, as the main gate was already closed after 10 PM, Makati Mayor

Vice President Binay

Junjun Binay, together with his sister, Senator Nancy, was advised to use the other exit gate at the posh Dasmariñas Village in Makati City.

“Don’t you know me?” Mayor Junjun Binay said. The mayor berated the gate guards, and his escort brandishing firearms as they got down from their vehicles. The three security guards were reportedly arrested and detained by officers of the Makati Police on orders of the Mayor. And finally, after the incident, the father who is the Vice President, merely said”, A little courtesy for the mayor, please.” It is a blatant oppression of the poor by the powerful.

Sometimes even the family members of influential business tycoon think they are worthy of worship… live higher than Pharaohs and kings. A month ago, a Korean Air heiress Cho Hyun-ah berated a flight attendant in front of other passengers, made him kneel before her and ordered the pilot to take the plane back to the gate to let him off. The plane was about to take off at New York’s John F. Kennedy Airport. A dismay to a traveling public! After the incident, her father who is the owner and chair of the airline company, apologized in public and called her daughter “foolish.” A display of abuse of power!

Since biblical times, the mighty and powerful live in a fabulous and lavish lifestyle, and have the power over life and death of an individual. Some of these men don’t even deserve pity; they stain themselves with the blood of the innocents; they live like a king and princes, but like everyone else, they will perish and return to the dusts.

# Harmattan- a Season of Dry and Dusty Wind

By Vic Odarve

Unlike most tropical countries which feature distinct wet and dry climates, some African countries have this unique season called Harmattan- a season of dry and dusty wind. These extremely dust-laden winds block out the sun for days and severely limit visibility like a heavy fog or cloudy mists and bring wide temperature fluctuations in the surroundings between days and nights.

Dry air and dusty atmosphere surround the tennis court

The Harmattan is a seasonal wind, which is an extremely dry and dusty that blows at intermittent strengths from the Sahara toward the westerly coast of Africa every year from November through March. This wind builds up during the dry season when a high pressure system of the subtropical ridge stays over the central Sahara Desert and a low pressure system of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) stays over the Gulf of Guinea. The wind picks up fine dust

Dusty wind from Sahara blows toward to the western coast of Africa

and sand particles (0.5 – 10 micrometers) as it passes over the Sahara, and brings it all the way to Nigeria and its neighboring countries on the western coast of Africa. Every morning seems misty with fogs covering the buildings and mountain ranges. The fogs are formed from minute suspended dust particles which find its way into homes, regardless of keeping them close. Dusts deposit on the floors, rooms, and almost all parts inside the house can be observed every day.

The foggy atmosphere sometimes causes the visibility less than 500 m and vehicles have to put their lights on during the daytime. When visibility becomes a problem, some flights are

Dorms, university rooms and offices are not spared from dust deposits.

cancelled or diverted to other routes which cause airlines millions of dollars.

Air humidity oftentimes drops to as low as 15 percent, which in effect, cause the season’s temperature widely fluctuates; it is usually cool at night with temperatures can be as low as 9 °C (48 °F) and can soar to 30C (86F) during the afternoon. There are reports that due to low humidity some people suffered nose bleeding. Due to the wind laden with dust, some varieties of crops severely

Dust settle down on the roofs, and all the other parts of the buildings.

damaged; its interaction with monsoon wind reportedly caused tornadoes; and interrupt commerce and daily life activities for days.

As we love to see the beautiful mists and fogs crowning mountain ranges meeting all fairies and magical creatures way back to Asian and western countries, this Harmattan-a dust laden misty fog affects peoples’ lives. Some people view these things differently and alter their lives – sometimes in very subtle ways- sometimes more obviously. This season brings bad tempers and poor decisions making, and worse, get their lives irritable.

# Nigerian Fluted Pumpkin; Health Benefits

By Vic Odarve

If Asian and western countries have their own exotic and nourishing green leafy vegetables, Nigeria has fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), a vegetable whose leaves and seeds becomes a part of their daily food preparation. Not only known as essential ingredients for their specialty pepper soup, this dark green leafy vegetable has medicinal and commercial values.

Nigerian fluted pumpkin leaves are used in making pepper soup

Fluted pumpkin is a tropical climber leafy vegetables belong to a family of “cucurbitaceae”. In Nigeria, these plants are widely cultivated in the eastern part of the country by an Igbo tribe. These climbing vines are widely cultivated for its leaves. The fruit is big and sometimes weigh as much as 14 kilograms. It looks like a giant fruit from a cocoa tree… dark and chalky color with a thick outer covering. The seeds are red blood in color and can be boiled or roasted for eating. It contains protein, potassium, iron, and other nutritious substance.

Fruit of the Nigerian fluted pumpkin

Nigerians, particularly the Igbo tribe, used the leaves as the main ingredients in making pepper soup. Since yams are one of the most important staple foods of Nigeria, this pepper soup serves as a sauce during eating. It is as important as fish and meat by Western and Asian people.  The young shoots and tender stem of the plants are also nutritious and delicious to eat. Almost all restaurantsserve pepper soup as you order any foodstuff from the counter. And tasting

Fruits look like a giant cacao usually weighing 10 -14 kgs.

this native sauce enjoyed by the native population is an experience that should not be missed for an expatriate.

The plant has many medicinal values. Several studies from various Nigerian universities showed the fluted pumpkin leaves can be used to lower diabetes and heart disease risks, including hypertensions; contains lots of phytonutrients which are thought to reduce the risks of breast and stomach cancers, and useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress and cholesterol levels. Lately, the pumpkin extract is one of the ingredients in the herbal preparations in African Traditional medicine.

In addition to its medicinal values, it can be produced commercially. Its leaves are exported to western countries, particularly England. These leaves can now be found in some European markets for research, consumption, and ingredients in some food preparations. The fresh leaves can be stored for a month in the market and retain its freshness.

This Nigerian fluted pumpkin, a nutritious vegetable with plenty of health benefits, is not grown in Western and Asian countries. And perhaps someday, they can be cultivated in their backyards, as what Igbo tribes in Nigeria are doing.

By Vic Odarve

Fearsome, bald, ugly, and dirty! This is how my friends describe these big birds as they patiently waited their turn to clean whatever the garbage left after we slaughtered cows and pigs for New Year’s celebration. These are African vultures…the icons of the African skies and are often seen across the continent.

African Vultures in Nigeria, Africa

Sniffing and crowding the slaughter area, they alighted on our rooftops and the nearby palm trees. They are our regular visitors whenever we have a huge party celebration- simply looking for whatever the leftovers. Jostling each other over the carcasses of the slaughtered cows and pigs, they gorge themselves when foods are abundant, then relax to allow food to digest. Then these birds frequently visited the area for 3 days as the surrounding still fills the smell of the rotten dead animals.

Roasted pig preparation

Though fearsome in their appearance – bald head, devoid of normal feathers,they rarely killed animals by themselves for they have no sharp beaks or talons except when animals are wounded or sick. As always nature does, vulture’s urine contains uric acid, which kills bacteria as they walk through carcasses. That’s why they urinate straight down their legs.

Vultures patiently wait for their turn

As the dedicated scavengers, they play their role by recycling rotten animals that no living creatures simply do. They are nature’s purifiers by converting waste into a useful one; hence making our planet habitable.

New Year’s day celebration at Elele Catholic Prayers Ministry, Rivers State, Nigeria. More than 10,000 people joined the celebration.

Without these birds who will take care the  rotten/dying/diseased animals in the vast African desert, savannah, and plains? None! And the world will be messed up with diseases! Vultures did the business.

God is a great designer and the role the vultures play in our environment is a remarkable one.

Vultures, one of the icons in African skies, once again join our New Years day preparation-   cleaning the garbage of slaughtered animals – a difficult task for human beings!